How does RGB LED 5MM work?

15 Apr 2020

Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are everywhere. In our daily lives, cars and even phones are used in them. LEDs come in many shapes and sizes, which allows designers to tailor LEDs to their products. Their low power consumption and small size make them ideal for many different products and can be seamlessly applied to the design, making it a better device overall.

The operating current of 5mm LED is much less than that of high-brightness LED, only 20mA, while the minimum current of high-power LED is 350mA. They can be easily powered by small batteries and have a long service life. This makes it easy to integrate them into many electronic devices or place the lamp in places where it cannot normally be moved. These ultra-small light sources are easy to use.

5mm LED Basics
Diodes are electronic components that conduct electricity in only one direction. The diode has a forward voltage rating that determines the minimum voltage difference between the anode (+) and cathode (-) to allow electrons to flow. LEDs and diodes are basically the same, the main difference is that it emits light when current flows.

The rgb led 5mm is a type of LED that fixes the die to the anvil, which is encapsulated in an epoxy dome to provide protection. Then connect by two feet or prongs extending from the bottom. It is easy to use the 5mm LED indicator, the longer leg is the anode, and the shorter leg is the cathode. Make sure that the positive pole of the battery / power supply is always connected to the anode, and the negative pole or ground is always connected to the cathode. In order to ensure that your LED has sufficient power, you should pay attention to two key ratings when viewing LED specifications: forward voltage and forward current.

rgb led 5mm

5mm LED Voltage
Each LED should list a "forward voltage" that defines the amount of voltage needed to conduct and emit light. If you try to provide anything less than this amount, the LED will remain on and not conductive. Once the voltage drop across the LED reaches the forward voltage, your LED will light up. If there are multiple LEDs in series, the sum of their forward voltage ratings must be considered.

5mm LED Current
Some people think that they only need to pay attention to the LED voltage, and ignore the very important current. The LED will absorb as much current as possible in the circuit, causing the temperature of the LED to rise until it burns out. Therefore, in order to reduce the number of faulty LEDs, please pay attention to the rated current of the LEDs. The rated current of 5mm LED is much lower, usually about 15-30mA, we can control the current by connecting a resistor in series with the LED.

5mm LED light output
LED Wavelength

LED wavelength is basically a very accurate way to explain the color of light. For LEDs, with the tension of the manufacturing process, sometimes the wavelength will be slightly different, so the color will change. These changes are always in the same spectrum, even if you buy many different batches of LEDs of the same color, there may be some subtle changes. This wavelength actually depends on the type of semiconductor material used to make the diode in a 5mm package. The energy band structure of semiconductors varies with materials, so photons are emitted at different frequencies, which affects the light we see.

LED Brightness
Therefore, the wavelength depends on the semiconductor material, and the light intensity depends on the current being pushed to the diode. Therefore, the higher the drive current, the brighter your LED will be. The brightness of 5mm LEDs is usually measured in milliamps, but this is not just a certain amount of brightness placed on any LED.

Diffuse 5mm LED
If the human eye looks at the LED directly, it is usually recommended to use some kind of diffusion or frosting treatment. Some 5mm LEDs are decorated with epoxy domes to make the light output softer.

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